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      >> Chess Glossary

    Abandon: To give up the game.

    Absolute Pin: A piece that is at a halt because moving it would place the King in check.

    Activity: The quality of a Chess position that describes mobility or freedom of movement for
    pieces.



    Action: Also known as Quick Chess Tournament. Here, the game times less than 30 minutes per side to complete each game.

    Adjournment: The postponement of the unfinished game. In such situation, the player on the  move seals his/her next move in an envelope only to be opened when the game   resumes.

    Adjust: Touching a piece without the intention of making a move.

    Algebraic Notation: Process of recording the moves of the chess game where each square has a designated name.

    Annotation: Written or narrative comments about a position or a game.

    Attack: Aggressive move to capture opponentís piece.

    Backrank Mate: A checkmate made by a Queen or Rook along the 8th rank where the opponent's King is blocked in by its own Pawns.


    Backward Pawn: A Pawn that cannot be protected and supported by other Pawns. It is  considered as a weakness in a chess position because it cannot be protected.

    Bad Bishop: A bishop whose movement is restricted by friendly pawns.

    Bishop: It is one of the six chess pieces. Each player is given two bishops at the start of the game. The bishop can move to any number of squares along a diagonal but is confined to  squares of a single color for the entire game.

    Bishop Pair: Two Bishops vs. a Bishop and a Knight or two Knights Two bishops are effective  together because they control diagonals of both colors, and work very well in open positions.

    Blitz: A game, which is played with great speed usually clocked with 15 minutes.

    Blockade: A situation where a piece is prevented from advancing by an opposing piece.

    Blunder: A bad move in which a tactical response is overlooked.

    Break: A pawn move that proposes a pawn trade in order to increase space or relieve a cramped  position.

    Breakthrough: Infiltration to the enemyís position.

    Brilliant: A game, which has originality, innovation, and creativity.

    Capture: A piece is moved to a space occupied by an enemy chessman, the previous occupant is   captured, and eliminated from play.

    Castling: A special move done for the protection of a king. It is an only move wherein two pieces  can move simultaneously.

    Central: The four central squares in the middle of the board.

    Check: Attacking the opponentís king.

    Checkmate: Trapping the king of the opposite side.

    Chessclock: A special clock used in timed chess.

    Combination: A forced set of moves that help, which helps the initiator of moves to gain success  in the game.
    Cramped: A chess position that obstructs the freedom of movement for pieces behind pawns of                       the same color.

    Development: Method of moving the piece from their original squares to strategic positions where  they can aid the player more effectively.

    Double Attack: A move of aggression on an enemy piece by two friendly pieces at the same time.

    Double Check: An attack that checks the king with two pieces. The only way to escape a double check is for the King to move.

    Dislodging maneuver: A tactful move to upset a defensive position.

    Double Pawns: When the two Pawns of the same color are lined up on a file.

    Draw: When neither of the sides wins or loses

    ECO: Encyclopedia of Chess Openings. It is a collection of texts detailing the moves of common  Chess opening lines with commentary.

    Endgame: Also known as ending. It is the third and final state of the game after the opening and  middlegame, characterized by the relatively few Chessmen on the board.

    Escape Square: It is a square to which the King can flee if he is under attack. Also known as  giving.

    Echos: Two functionally similar positions on the same board one the mirror image of the other, due to the arrangement of the opponentís pieces being effectively symmetrical. This allows the   same attack to be made down either side of the board

    Elo Rating: An internationally accepted mathematical system for ranking chess players, devised by Arpad Elo. The Elo rating is the foundation for the award of FIDE titles.

    Endgame: The last phase of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. The endgame generally starts after queens have been exchanged or when the immediate goal is to promote a pawn.

    En passant: In French it refers to "in passing." It happens when a pawn moves two squares from  its starting position, and passes an enemy pawn that has advanced to its fifth rank.

    Exposed check: When check is achieved indirectly. Most commonly, the piece that moves ends up in a position such that it guards the enemy king. But, if instead, the piece that moves gets out of the way so that some other piece guards the king, check has been exposed.